A fundamental change affecting traditional broadcasting stems from the migration of networks to IP data transmission. Combined with significant broadband penetration, increases in bandwidth and the proliferation of digital devices, this has enabled different devices to use the same networks and has facilitated the ability of the communication industry to offer new and bundled services. This allows consumers to receive and decode video services across a variety of fixed and mobile devices. Technological developments affect the conditions of competition as they alter: the range and quality of services; the underlying costs; the extent of barriers to entry (new technologies provide new means by which the market is contested); the ability of customers to switch suppliers; and pricing mechanisms (technological developments allow for provision of pay per view services). Therefore, digitisation generally reduces barriers to entry.While technological evolution and the emergence of new products and services have rendered visual media markets more competitive, some developments in the television and broadcasting market create challenges for competition policy. Product market definition in television and broadcasting has become a serious challenge due to technological changes and convergence. To properly define the relevant market, for example, US NCAs news must have a clear understanding of demand and supply side substitutions along the entire value chain. The market analysis must also take into account the different variables specific to audiovisual products and service markets, like high fixed costs, low marginal costs, bundling, non-price competition, two-sided or multi-sided nature of markets, vertical integration or rapid technological development. Convergence has led to situations of triple play, with telecommunications, cable TV and the Internet, or even quadruple play, with telecommunications, cable TV, Internet and mobile industry. Although market definitions will likely differ across jurisdictions and among individual markets, on a general level a wholesale market for content, a wholesale access market to the infrastructure and a retail market can be identified. A narrower market definition can be based on the type of: broadcaster, platform, pay TV services or premium content. Historically, different types of media (TV, radio, Internet or press) were viewed as separate product markets, but convergence has forced a number of NCAs to adopt a broader market definition (e.g. CME/Balkan News Corporation and TV Europe in Bulgaria). Similarly, representatives of the industry favour the adoption of a more inclusive product market definition. Even though convergence and technological changes have lowered barriers to entry, there are still significant challenges that may restrict market access. The doctrine gives a non-exhaustive list of examples: governmental policy, the presence of dominan.Access to premium content is a serious bottleneck and a source of market power. In particular, premium sport events (e.g. Olympic Games or football matches) and new releases of movies, which have no substitutes, are essential to the successful functioning of pay TV providers. Barriers to accessing content can arise from the integration of content owners and broadcasters, exclusive contractual arrangements or from vertical foreclosures by a dominant firm. Premium content may also have an impact on competition in other non-TV markets.